|Subject Title:||Biomedical Physics|
|Lecture:||3-4 hours/ week|
|Method of assessment:||Written|
At the end of the course the candidate will be able to Describe the fundamentals of general physics and able to relate its application in Physiotherapy, Understand basic physical principles of sound, light and heat and their application in Physiotherapy, Understand basic aspects of electricity and electronics as related to its application in electrotherapy instruments, Describe in brief certain common electrical components such as capacitors, transformers, valves and transistors; and will be able to identify such components.
SECTION – I
- General physics and properties of matter [15 Hours]:
- Force: Definition, unit, resolution of forces, Newton’s law of motion, types of motion, force of gravity and centre of gravity, reaction forces, equilibrium, determination of equilibrium of body, work, power, energy, torque.
- Friction: Force of friction, laws of static and dynamic friction, limits of friction, friction a necessity and evil.
- Simple machines: Definition, principle of work, mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency, lever, pulley and three systems of pulley, wheel and axel.
- Fluid Mechanics and Hydrodynamics: Physical properties of water, Viscosity, definition and co-efficient of viscosity, stream line and turbulent flow, effect of temperature and pressure on viscosity, surface tension, buoyancy, principle of Archimedes, laws of floatation, hydrostatic pressure.
- Elasticity: Definition
- Heat [15 Hours]:
- Heat transfer, emissive and absorptive power-properties of thermal radiation of a perfectly black body, Kirchoff’s law.
- Specific heat, thermal capacity, water equivalent, Newton’s law of cooling and specific heat by cooling specific heat of gases, Joule’s law of heat production.
- Energy conservation, 1 and 2 laws of thermodynamics.
- Grothus’ law.
- Physical effects of heat-expansion, evaporation, thermionic emission etc., concept of heat and temperature, measurement of heat thermometry.
- Human body temperature and its measurement.
- Biophysics of superficial heat and cold.
- Sound [15 Hours]:
- Origin of sound, Definition-Wavelength, frequency, amplitude, time period, vibration, phases, relation between frequency and wavelength.
- Newton’s formula for velocity of sound.
- Lap lace’s correction
- Effect of temperature, pressure density of media, humidity and wind, loudness, pitch. e) Interference of sound waves, velocity of sound in water, resonance and velocity of sound in air by resonance method,
- Doppler Effect, echo.
- Ultrasonic – Production and its application, recording and reproduction of sound.
- Light [10 Hours]:
- Absorptions and emission spectra, classification of emission spectra sole spectrum and Fraunhofer lines.
- Electromagnetic spectrum-infrared and UV spectrum
- Laws of transmission, reflection, refraction, absorption, interference of light
- LASER and its application, fiber optics
- Electricity [15 Hours]:
- Conductors and insulators, fundamentals of electricity.
- Different types of capacitors, biological cell as a capacitor.
- Principal laws of electricity-Ohm’s law, variable, rheostat and potentiometer.
- Effect of electric current, thermal, chemical and magnetic .
- Electromagnetic induction – mutual – Lenz’s law, Faraday’s law, Fleming’s right hand rule, self induction, mutual induction, induction coil, induction of EMF in a coil, rotating within the magnetic field, Eddy currents.
- Transformer step up – step down, long distance transmission.
- Production of electricity and mains supply, measurement of AC/DC, modified current, millimeter, voltmeter,
- Modern Physics [15 Hours]:
- Structure of atom (Bohr model)
- X-rays – Production, properties and application.
- IR rays and UV rays – Short wave and microwave diathermy.
- Electric shock – Causes and prevention
- Therapeutic currents –Iimpulses, definition and types, pulse duration and depletion times.
- Galvanic current, Faradic currents, Surging current, exponentially progressive current, biphasic current.
- Types of electrodes of elector diagnostic and therapeutic application.
- Electronics [15 Hours]:
- Thermionic valves, semi conductor, diode characteristics, diode as rectifier, Zener diode single stage transistor, advantage of semiconductor over thermionic valves.
- Rectifier, transistors, photo diode, light dependent resistors, light emitting diodes, integrated circuits.
- Amplifier – Production of high frequency currents (microwave) by Klystron magnetron, amplifier C.R.O., triode as amplifier and oscillator, thyratron.
- Electronic circuit – Oscillating circuit, production of shaped pulses, amplification of electrical pulses.
- Biophysical Bases of Electrotherapy: by Alex Ward, 1st Edition
- Physical Principles Explained: Low & Reed
- Biophysics: An Introduction [Paperback] Roland Glaser
- Principal of Electronics By. V. K. Mehta
- Fundamentals of Physics By Robert Resnik