|Total Hours/ Week:||2-3 hours|
|Method of Assessment:||Written|
This subject follows the basic subjects of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry and it forms a vital link between pre-clinical subjects and clinical subjects. Pathology involves the study of causes and mechanisms of diseases. Microbiology involves the study of common organisms causing diseases including nosocomial infections and precautionary measures to protect one from acquiring infections. The knowledge and understanding of Microbiology & Pathology of diseases is essential to institute appropriate treatment or suggest preventive measures to the patient. Particular effort is made in this course to avoid burdening the student.
- General Pathology
- Introduction to Pathology [1 Hour]: Subdivisions of Pathology, Key terms used in pathology viz. etiology, morphological changes, lesions, primary & secondary, acute & chronic
- Cellular Injuries [1 Hour]: Causes & mechanism of cell injury, reversible & irreversible cellular injuries
- Cell Death & Cell Necrosis [1 Hour] : Different types of cell necrosis, its gross & microscopic appearances, gangrene & its different types; Apoptosis
- Cellular Adaptations [1 Hour] : Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, Metaplasia, cellular dysplasia
- Cellular Changes & Information [1 Hour]: Cloudy swelling, hydropic change, fatty change, mucoid change, pathological calcification
- Amyloidosis [1 Hour]: Definition, classification, nature of amyloid, clinical significance
- Pathology of Diabetes Mellitus [1 Hour]: Definition, classification of diabetes, Pathology of – renal, cardiovascular, ophthalmic & neurological complications.
- Inflammation [3 Hours]: Acute inflammation – definition, causes, vascular events, exudates formation, chemical mediators of inflammation , Chronic inflammation – general feature, Granulomatous inflammation, examples of Granulomatous inflammation
- Wound Healing [2 Hours]: Regeneration, repair, healing by primary & secondary union, factors affecting healing, healing of bone fracture.
- Hemodynamic changes [4 Hours] : Oedema, hyperaemia & congestion, thrombosis, embolism, infarction, shock.
- Tumor Pathology [2 Hours] : Definition, classification, characteristics of benign & malignant tumors, pathogenesis & spread of tumors.
- Systemic Pathology
- Gastrointestinal tract [2 Hours]: Peptic ulcer, benign & malignant tumors of intestine, infective & inflammatory bowel diseases, typhoid ulcer, intestinal tuberculosis, ‘Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis.
- Liver disease [2 Hours]: Viral hepatitis A, viral hepatitis B, viral hepatitis c, cirrhosis of liver, portal hypertension, pathology of jaundice
- Genitourinary tract [2 Hours] : Acute &chronic renal failure, definition &classification of glomerulonephrotis, hydronephrosis, urinary calculi, classification of testicular & ovarian tumors.
- Musculoskeletal system [2 Hours]:
- Osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, psoriasis [1 hour]
- Muscle disease – myopathic and Neurogenic disorders, inflammatory myopathy, muscular dystrophies
- Respiratory system [4 hours] : Bronchitis, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, emphysema, Bronchiectasis, neonatal respiratory syndrome, adult respiratory syndrome
- Cardiovascular system
- Blood Vessels: Atherosclerosis, aneurysm, phelebothrombosis, thrombophelebitis[2 Hours]
- Heart Disease: Rheumatic heart disease, bacterial endocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, coronary heart disease, congenital heart diseases [4 Hours]
- Central nervous system [2 Hours]: Meningitis, encephalitis, hydrocephalus, cerebrovascular disease, poliomyelitis, epidural & subdural hematoma
- Anaemias: Definition, classification, Fe deficiency ananemia, B12 deficiency ananemia, hemolytic ananemias, thalassemia, sickle cell ananemia, G6PD deficiency ananemia, aplastic ananemia. [3 Hours]
- Leukemias: Definition & classification, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia [1 Hour]
- Haemorrhagic disorders: Haemophilia, purpura, prothrombin time [1 Hour]
- Blood Banking: Blood groups, cross matching, blood transfusion reaction, selection of blood donor, blood components [2 Hour]
Demonstration of Slides – The students may be demonstrated the common histopathological, hematological and cytological slides, specimens, charts and their interpretations.
- Text book of pathology: Harshmohan
- General Systemic pathology: Churchill Livingstone
- Text book of Pathology: Robbins
- Textbook of Pathology. : S. G. Deodhare
- Pathology. Anderson (reference).
Section – II – Microbiology
|Total Hours/ Week:||2 hours|
|Method of Assessment:||Written|
- General Microbiology [10 Hours]
- Definitions: Infections, parasite, host, vector, fomite, contagious disease, infectious disease, epidemic, endemic, pandemic, Zoonosis, Epizootic, Attack rate.
- Normal flora of the human body.
- Routes of infection and spread; endogenous and exogenous infections; source at reservoir of infections.
- Morphology of bacteria – Size, Shape, motility and arrangement. Structures, which are virulence – pili, cell wall, capsule, flagella.
- Sterilization, disinfection, aseptic measures and universal precautions in relation to patient care and disease prevention.
- Culture media.
- Immunology [7 Hours]: Basic principles of immunity & immunobiology: lymphoid organs and tissues. Antigen, Antibodies, antigen and antibody reactions – agglutination, precipitation, innate immunity, ELISA,RIA, fluroscenceAb techniques.Humoral immunity, Cell mediated immunity , hypersensitivity.
- Bacteriology [11 Hours]
- Morphology, mode of transmission, prevention, pathogenesis, collection and transport of samples for laboratory diagnosis, treatment.
- Staphylococci, Streptococci and Pneumococci,
- Mycobacteria: M. Tuberculosis, M. leprae,
- Salmonella, shigella.
- Vibrio cholera.
- Sporing and non-sporing anaerobes: Clostridia. Cl. Perfringens, cl. Tetani
- Syphilis- treponema pellidium
- General Virology [6 Hours]: General properties: Basic structure, Pathogenesis and pathology of viral infections. Immunity and prophylaxis of viral diseases. Principles of laboratory diagnosis of viral diseases. List of commonly used antiviral agents. Poliommyelitis, HIV, Hepatitis.
- Mycology [6 Hours]: General properties of fungi. fungal diagnosis. Rapid diagnosis. Method of collection of samples. Antifungal agents. Pathogenesis. Mycetoma. Aspergillosis. Candidiasis.
- Demonstration of Microscopes and its uses
- Principles, uses and demonstration of common sterilization equipment
- Demonstration of common culture media
- Demonstration of Gram Stain, ZN Stain
- Demonstration of Serological test: ELISA
- Demonstration of Fungus
- Short textbook of Medical Microbiology by Sathish Gupta
- Microbiology & Parasitology by Rajeshwar Reddy
- Text book of Microbiology by Anantha Narayanan and Jayaram Panicker
- Microbiology by Baveja
- Text book of Microbiology by Chakraborthy